Indices of Multiple Deprivation
The conceptual model behind the work of CASASP to create Indices of Multiple Deprivation at a small area level is based on the idea of distinct uni-dimensional domains of deprivation which can be recognised and measured separately. People may be counted as deprived in one or more of the domains, depending on the number of types of deprivation that they experience. The domains of deprivation are combined, with appropriate weighting, into a single measure of multiple deprivation to produce a weighted area level aggregation of the specific domains of deprivation.
Building on work undertaken in the UK, CASASP has developed the following indices:
A constituency level Namibian Index of Multiple Deprivation (NIMD) was produced by CASASP in 2011. The NIMD was built using the 2001 Namibian Census of Population. This was developed further by creating a new statistical geography – ‘datazones’ – for Namibia. Datazones are a much smaller geography than constituencies and so facilitate the identification of pockets of deprivation within each constituency. The NIMD was then produced at datazone level, again using the 2001 Census. This research was funded by UNDP Namibia.
Reports page of this website.
Working with Statistics South Africa, CASASP produced the SAIMD 2001. The work was undertaken in collaboration with and funded by the Department of Social Development of the Republic of South Africa as part of DFID Southern Africa’s SACED programme. The full report and data can be downloaded here.
The SAIMD 2001 replaced the earlier Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2001 which was produced at ward level for each province. Those interested in downloading the PIMD report and underlying data can obtain it here.
A South African Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 has been developed at datazone level. This involved multi-level modelling and direct estimation using the Census 2001 and the Community Survey 2007. Download the report for the modelled datazone level SAIMD 2007 here.
A municipality level SAIMD 2007 was also produced using the 2007 Community Survey. By additionally constructing a municipality level index for 2001, it was possible to examine change over time. Download the report for the municipality level SAIMD 2007 here.
Both projects were funded by the Department of Social Development as part of DFID Southern Africa’s SACED programme.
A municipality level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation for Children (SAIMDC) 2001 was undertaken by CASASP in collaboration with the Human Sciences Research Council, funded by Save the Children Sweden. The SAIMDC focuses exclusively on children and was constructed from the 2001 Census at municipality level for the whole country. Download the report for the South African Index of Multiple Deprivation for Children 2001 at municipality level here.
A more fine-grained version of the SAIMDC was has also been constructed using the new datazone geography constructed by CASASP (see above) and the 2001 Census. Download the report for the South African Index of Multiple Deprivation for Children 2001 at datazone level here.
A municipality level SAIMDC 2007 has been produced using the 2007 Community Survey. The report contains analysis of change between 2001 and 2007. This work was funded by the Department of Social Development as part of DFID Southern Africa’s SACED programme. Download the report for the South African Index of Multiple Deprivation for Children 2007 at municipality level here.
This project involves ongoing work with the City of Johannesburg’s Department of Community Development in developing a poverty index for determining eligibility for the expanded social package (the City’s basket of subsidies for poor people). CASASP and the Policy Analysis and Capacity Enhancement (PACE) programme at the Human Sciences Research Council have been commissioned by Community Development to advise on the construction of the poverty index and to develop the area component of the Johannesburg poverty index.